Caligae – the marching boots worn by Roman Legionnaires

Image courtesy of Adobe Stock.

Legionnaires in the Roman army wore marching boots, called caligae (singular caliga). These may appear to be merely an open sandal. However, they were sturdy enough to wear all day, every day, even on long marches.

A thick lower sole would be attached to a mid sole with hobnails. This added strength to the boot and increased its durability. (I don’t know enough about shoe construction but that is the comment made by several sources.)

Hobnail (PSF).png has been released into the public domain courtesy of Pearson Scott Forseman.

For a conception of what hobnailed Roman caligae might look like, consider this photo of a hobnailed boot of the U.S. Union Army. The boot is thus circa 1861 to 1865.

Continue reading “Caligae – the marching boots worn by Roman Legionnaires”

Balteus or cingulum- belt worn by Roman Legionnaires. Puglio – dagger carried by soldiers.

Roman Legionairre, with focus on belt, or balteus. Image courtesy of Adobe Stock.

Roman soldiers would wear a belt around their waist.

I have not seen much discussion on the purpose of the belt. It would be the base for carrying some items. For example, a dagger, called a puglio, would be on the left side.  A money pouch could be carried on the belt, I suppose.

Continue reading “Balteus or cingulum- belt worn by Roman Legionnaires. Puglio – dagger carried by soldiers.”

Cash-based income statement of farm in 1945/1946 – part 4

Daniel Ulvog. Date unknown but prior to June 1945. Photo provided by Sonia Pooch.

Previous post listed the cash transactions in the estate of my paternal grandfather from the day he passed away until a probate filing was prepared for the court.

The probate filing provides a glimpse into farm life in the mid-1940s.

As you read the summarized income statement and cash transactions below, keep in mind this is the cash activity to feed and cloth a family consisting of one mom and four children still living at home. Notice was one purchase of groceries for $9.60 and only two purchases of clothing. There is no indication of any purchases in November or December which could be considered Christmas presents.

To say finances were tight would be an understatement.

The cash transactions can be summarized into a cash-based income statement as follows:

Continue reading “Cash-based income statement of farm in 1945/1946 – part 4”

Cash transactions listed in 1945 probate filing – part 3

Daniel Ulvog. Date unknown, but before June 1945. Photo provided by Sonia Pooch.

The estate of my paternal grandfather went through probate in 1946 after he died in 1945.  The probate filing listed the cash received and paid from the time of his death until the document was filed with the court.

The filing provides a view of farm life in the mid-1940s. This series of posts uses the filing to take a glimpse into life back then.

Here are the cash transactions listed in the court filing:

Continue reading “Cash transactions listed in 1945 probate filing – part 3”

Prices of farm animals in 1945 – part 2

Daniel and Lydia Ulvog with 5 of 8 children (Gilbert, Lloyd, Olaf, James, Clarice) on Ellefson farm, in late ’30s or before 1945. Photo provided by Sonia Pooch.

The probate filing for the estate of my grandfather, Daniel Ulvog, provides a lot of information about the farm. Let’s look at indicators of the price of farm animals. The filling provides a number of data points.

Here is the listed information sorted by animal with a mean (weighted average), mode (price with largest number of animals), and my point estimate of the price of different animals.

 

Cows:

Sales:

  • $132.07 – 19 head

Purchases:

Continue reading “Prices of farm animals in 1945 – part 2”

Glimpse into economic life on a farm in 1945, provided by probate documents – part 1

Daniel Ulvog on tractor, with sons Olaf (l) and James (r), taken on the rented Ellefson farm in early 1940s. Photo provided by Sonia Pooch.

My paternal grandfather passed away on June 1, 1945, near the end of World War 2.

Disposition of his estate was officially approved by a court, which provides us a glimpse into the economics of farm life in the 1940s.

He died intestate, meaning he did not have a will, so the estate was distributed in accordance with South Dakota state law. His estate went through probate, which means a court had to approve the distribution.

The filing with the court contains a list of:

Continue reading “Glimpse into economic life on a farm in 1945, provided by probate documents – part 1”

Indicator of coast-to-coast travel cost and wages for school teacher in San Diego back in 1865

One room schoolhouse. Image courtesy of Adobe Stock.

Docent at the School House Museum in the Old Town San Diego State Historical Park explained the people of San Diego hired a professionally trained primary school teacher in 1865.

Mary Chase Walker had challenges finding a good position in Massachusetts, so she sailed to San Francisco. When the anticipated job there did not materialize, she took a teaching position in San Diego.

Her salary was a quite impressive $65 a month at a time when the average laborer was paid somewhere around $30 a month.

Continue reading “Indicator of coast-to-coast travel cost and wages for school teacher in San Diego back in 1865”

Equipment of a Roman Legionnaire

Fully equipped Roman Legionnaire. Image courtesy of Adobe Stock.

The clothing and weaponry of a Legionnaire in the Roman army are described in  a series of posts. This fits well with this blog’s topic of ancient finances.

You will also find this fits well with the description of the armor of God as described by the Apostle Paul in the sixth chapter of his epistle to the Ephesians.

Posts on Legionnaire equipment and weaponry:

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Gladius, sword used by Roman Legionnaires

Roman Legionnaire wearing chain mail armor, carrying a scutum, holding a gladius at the ready. Image courtesy of Adobe Stock.

The gladius is a short sword, about 2 feet long, used by soldiers in the Roman army. In the hands of trained legionnaires, the gladius was a potent offensive weapon.

Roman soldiers would advance side-by-side with their shield, called a scutum, held in their left hand and a gladius in their right hand. In this position, the sharp tip of the gladius was best used as a thrusting weapon to stab the enemy, aiming for the torso. In ancient times, an abdomen wound was usually fatal.

With a two foot length and sharp double edges, the gladius could also be used as for slashing or cutting. From comments I’ve read, the main use was for thrusting.

Wikipedia describes the various sizes of Gladius:

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Inflation factors during the Civil War and an indication of relative wages in the 1860s.

Manassas National Battlefield Park. Image courtesy of Adobe Stock.

An insightful indicator of wages during the Civil War can be found in The Cause Lost: Myths and Realities of the Confederacy, by William C. Davis. Book also has useful indicators of inflation through 1863.

The northern economy was quite strong during the Civil War, with demand for skilled and unskilled workers in industry creating more lucrative job opportunities in the civilian world than being in the army.

While the pay for a soldier was $13 a month, the author says a man could make four times that much money merely by working as “a sign maker or a clerk in a dry goods store” (location 26210). That stat is credited to American Annual Cyclopedia, 1863, p. 413. A 30 second search on the ol’ internet suggests the book can be had for between $60 and $100.

The ratio of 4x suggests a dry good store clerk could make somewhere around $50 a month.

Continue reading “Inflation factors during the Civil War and an indication of relative wages in the 1860s.”